Study of Alcohols, Its Etymology and Chemistry


As the name indicates, This blog will be compensating the aforementioned term ”Alcohols”. Alcohols are one of the most demanding class of organic compounds that are being used widely in commercial products, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, fuels, paints and furnishes, polishing liquids and in almost every industry somehow and could make up the 80-90% of the market’s holdings.

Normal spirits that are being used for disinfection purposes are spirits. Many pharmaceutical products contain alcohols such as elixirs, cough syrups and many more. Fuels, paints, these are all organic compounds and comprise of alcoholic groups. Alcohols are also used in microbiological studies, For research purposes. Many drinks that are being consumed occasionally contain alcohols such as vodka, beers, wine and etc.


1540s (early 15th century. as alcofol), “fine powder produced by sublimation,” from Medieval Latin alcohol “powdered ore of antimony,” from Arabic al-kuhul “kohl,” the fine metallic powder used to darken the eyelids, from kahala “to stain, paint.” The al- is the Arabic definite article, “the.”

Paracelsus (1493-1541) used the word to refer to a fine powder but also a volatile liquid. By 1670s it was being used in English for “any sublimated substance, the pure spirit of anything,” including liquids. Sense of “intoxicating ingredient in strong liquor” is first recorded 1753, short for alcohol of wine, which was extended to “the intoxicating element in fermented liquors.” In organic chemistry, the word was extended 1850 to the class of compounds of the same type as this.


Paragraphs for etymology have been extracted from the below reference.

Chemistry of Alcohols:

In order to understand the chemistry of alcohols, First we need to understand a little bit chemistry.

What is Chemistry? Well, Chemistry is the branch of science that is concerned with the substances of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances. Or in simple words, It may be defined as ” Chemistry is the branch of science which deals with the composition of matter and its physical and chemical properties ”.

Chemistry has been further sub branched into many classes but here we will divide it into two branches for our own ease. So, Chemistry is further divided into inorganic and organic chemistry.

Inorganic chemistry is concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds, which include metals, minerals, and organo-metallic compounds. Examples of inorganic compounds may include water, acids, salts, iron compounds and etc.

While organic chemistry is defined as the study of carbon-containing compounds and inorganic chemistry is the study of the remaining subset of compounds other than organic compounds, there is overlap between the two fields (such as organo-metallic compounds, which usually contain a metal or metalloid bonded directly to carbon). Example of organic compounds may include ethanol, butanol, acetones, ketones, carboxylic acids, fuels and many more.

Chemically, Alcohols comprise of carbon chains of any length having atleast one hydroxyl group attached to any of the carbon. Hydroxyl group ( -OH group ) is a mandatory factor to call any compound alcoholic.

A diagram has been quoted above to ease our understanding about alcohols. As it can be seen, There is a carbon chain comprises of four carbons having their bonds with hydrogen but there is also one hydroxyl group attached to the second carbon. This hydroxyl group represents alcoholic group and in the field of chemistry, Hydroxyl groups are being called as alcoholic groups. Hence, the overall compound is alcoholic in nature.


Alcohols are the widely used organic compounds in today’s markets. Their importance and consumption plays a key role in world’s economy. World’s Statistical reports show huge alcohol consumption in different regions of the world, in different ages of people as well.

Such class of organic compounds have rooted strongly worldwide. Its demand reaches to almost 80-90% of the world’s industrial zones. However, there are some dark sides of this specific class of organic compound and that would be discussed in the coming blogs.

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Drugs And the Concept of Drug Abuse.What is meant by Drug Abuse? How drugs can affect us? Do Drugs cause addiction?

In our daily lives, We consume alot of stuff in order to gain something. Those consuming items could either be supplemental such as our daily food which is rich in fundamental nutrients that are essential for us for our living and which includes proteins, carbohydrates,fats, salts, water, vitamins and etc. So, They are like energy packets for us from which we gain energy and they are also essential for our health system. In order to keep us healthy, we need all these essential nutrients. It is important to understand the balance between the consumption and utilization of anything.

Concept Of Drug:

What is the definition of Drug? What is it mean by a drug? How would one define a drug? Let’s try to understand the drug and/or its concept. Drug could be anything which can be beneficial for us in any manner. For example, When our homeostatic condition is disturbed somehow and our body temperature rises, We call it fever. In order to lower the temperature, We either take a drug such as Paracetamol or drink water so that our body temperature gets back to normal. So, Paracetamol is a drug. Now, If someone gets weak, that needs some kind of minerals to restore the health. That mineral could either be a salt or any nutrient in the form of supplements that are available in the markets. So, In this case, Drug is either a salt or that specific nutrient.

Drug Abuse:

Our body has limits to everything we consume. It is just like we consume food in a limited quantity, water we drink in limited volume per day. It is because the space we have been provided inside is naturally upto some limits. If we consume more food than normal routine, Then we start having stomach problems and vice versa. Similar is the case with drugs. The main and important thing that segregate drugs from normal food is their potency. Drugs are highly potent and they are consumed in milligrams or some are consumed rather in micrograms.

In order to understand the concept of drug abuse, One must get onself known about the three levels of effects that could be produced by any drug when consumed. Those levels are:

  • No Effect
  • Therapeutic Effect
  • Lethal Effect

Drugs show their effects when a certain level of quantity is reached into our systemic circulation, In general terms, this means in blood. This is because of the reason of drug receptor binding. In order to achieve therapeutic effect, certain amount of drug needs to be bound with receptors that are present in our blood. That is why, the drugs that are available in markets are of specific dose or quantity. If a drug is consumed below its defined quantity, There is a possibility of zero to little effects. When a drug is consumed in its rightful quantity, therapeutic effects are achieved and this therepeutic effect is our desired effect. If a drug is consumed above the required quantity, that could produce undesired or harmful effects and/or even may disturb our central system. That is the reason, Patients are given a calculated amount of drug for their cure.

Therapeutic Window:

Therapeutic window is the gap between therapeutic effects and lethal effects. Or, it may also be defined as ” This window defines the limit of any drug given in order to achieve beneficial effects”. Drugs who are extremely potent have narrow therapeutic window and require keen observation during administration such as digoxin. This is because, the difference between the therapeutic dose and lethal dose is much smaller. Lethal dose could lead to death.

Blood Brain Barrier:

Naturally, Our brain or central nervous system has been protected via membrane so to avoid any harm to this delicate part of our body and to keep the normal activity. This membrane is known as blood brain barrier. Not all the drugs could pass through this membrane but there are some which could possibly pass through it. Those drugs are addictive in properties which means that they can cause addiction if taken for long such as Nicotine, Caffeine and besides, many drugs that are hypnotics or sedatives. And here comes the concept of drug abuse. Drug abuse means that a drug is taken for addictive intentions and not for its therapeutic purposes.

Such drugs when consumed soothen our mind and the consumer feels a relief. But when the quantity starts declining in our blood, The thirst for the consumption increases and the person feels terrible. Many addictive drugs are highly potent as they can cause addiction right after second or third consumption but this is not sufficient. It also depends upon the physiology of each person. Some individuals are much resistant to these kind of narcotic drugs and their bodies combat against their will but some may addicted quicker. The food we eat also plays a vital role in our health system. Addiction could be adapted abruptly but it could be harder for someone to withdraw addiction and for that purpose, there are many rehabilitation centers available in order to cure people that got into addiction either accidently or intentionally or somehow.


The food we eat is a drug and its over consumption may lead to harmful effects such as kidney stones, stomach issues because of the reason that our food is rich in minerals and basic nutrients. Similarly, The supplements or the medicines we take also could either be beneficial or harmful or in the worst case, Could be lethal depending upon the amount of doses. So, There shall always be a balance in our consumption..

A drug is abused or can be abused when it is taken for the purposes other than cure or beneficial or therapeutic effects. And ultimately, drug abuse leads to addiction which gets worse and terrible with the passage of time. Addiction may lead to death in its worst scenarios due to high consumption of addictive drugs that could finally lead to some strokes, cardiac failures, hepatic or renal failures.

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Did We Know That? Do We Care? Are you Curious About your Health? Are you Facing Health Problems?

In Today’s blog, we are going to highlight the modern life health cautions.
There was a time when people used to eat freshly sown vegetables and fruits. and if we go little back in time, we will come to the point that people of those times were much healthier than us. They were more energetic and sonic. They had better mental and physical health.
So what exactly happened with the passage of time. Even though we call ourselves modern. We got better and advanced technologies, food processing abilities and much more.But why is our health deteriorating despite being good enough.
Before going deeper into that. Lets think for a while that do we know how food is being processed now a days. Did we ever focus upon our daily diet. How much of the food we eat is fresh and what amount of the food is processed or preserved. Do we know how things are made now a days. What chemicals are being used to process and preserve these foods for the particular period of time. how is plastic affecting our food products. What is leaching and sorption? What is the effect of preserved food on our health? on our bodies? why the gastro intestinal problems are rising?

All these questions grab our minds when we start observing ourselves and our surroundings. Obesity, cardiac and digestive problems have become very common in our societies. Our temptation towards junk food is one of the biggest reasons for obesity and all aforementioned disorders.

According to the report, Between 2013 and 2016, about 37% of US adults consumed fast food on any given day. This is a huge number which may increase with time.

The link is:
According to the statistical unit of cdc ( Center for disease control ) which is National center for health statistics.
Data of digestive diseases of u.s citizens.
Morbidity: Number of adults with diagnosed ulcers: 14.8 million

Percent of adults with diagnosed ulcers: 5.9%

Number of visits to physician offices with diseases of the digestive system as the primary diagnosis: 22.4 million
Emergency department visits
Number of visits to emergency departments with diseases of the digestive system as the primary diagnosis: 8.3 million

The link to the statistics is:

In our daily routine, We do use number of tanned and/or preserved food items. On average, Almost more than 30 percent of our consumption comprises of preserved food products which may include tomatoes, fries, milk, dairy products, mix vegetable packs and many more. Though the food preserving firms do make sure that the quality of the products stays high but there are certain chemicals that leach into the food and may cause problems in long run. For example, Ghee is the hydrogenised form of oil. Ghee is made by the hydrogenation reaction of oil in the presence of nickel ( in traces). This nickel is hazardous for our health. There could be many more examples.

This is what i do feel about all this matter. Please let me know about your opinions. Sometimes, we shall not believe in what we have been shown.

What is Dexamethasone? New Research Says Steroid Can Reduce Mortality Ratio in Covid-19 Patients With Severe Conditions

Corticaosteroidal Molecule known as Dexamethasone

The drug has been found potent in reducing mortality ratio by 17% in coronavirus patients with severly ill conditions but some doctors have still objections over its reported benefits.

It has been nearly six months since corona virus a.k.a Covid-19 has been gripping the world and in this shot period of time, multiple medications—namely hydroxychloroquine ( Commonly used antimalarial drug and recently had its emergency use authorization revoked by the FDA) and remdesivir, an antiviral drug currently in the lead for proven, albeit modest benefits in treatment)—have been found as “game-changer” in the treatment.

We have recently got an add on in the tray of medicines that are presently given in the treatment of corona virus. Pharmacologically, Its a corticosteroidal molecule, commonly known as Dexamethasone. This information has been received from a statement released on Tuesday from chief investigators who conducted clinical trial in uk regarding the effectiveness of dexamethasone in severly ill or hospitalized covid-19 patients who require oxygen because of their respiratory systems being compromised due to virus. Dexamethasone has been found potent upto the extent that scientists are pondering to recognize this molecule as a standard in the treatment against covid-19.

This could be because of the mechanism of action of steroids or their nature, being anti inflammatory. Thus, reducing the inflammation inside the respiratory system paving the way for oxygen supply and the patient gets able to breathe smoothly. It is admirable to have such effects against covid-19 but there is a need of more trials and research as whether using steroids could be beneficial in long run? Because historically, It has been observed that using steroids may lead to many cardiac, renal and hepatic dysfunctions or disorders.

It must be kept at the front that dexamethasone is not the only drug currently being used. Besides, other forementioned drugs are also on the list including azithromycin which is a very commonly used antiobiotic. Being respiratorily compromised, one may lead to cardiac arrests, shock conditions and many severe conditions as well. Drugs have their therapeutic windows and index which means that every drug has its potency within a particular range of dose. Once it is crossed, It could lead to toxic effects. Just for the sake of an example, i would like to include that a very commonly used pain killer in our societies in paracetamol ( Brand Name: Panadol ). It comes in 500mg tablet normally. But it could be harmful for the human body if the blood levels reaches upto certain amount.


How long the covid-19 would last? This might be the question everybody might be thinking of!

It’s been almost half an year since the world is facing corona virus outbreak. In this interval, Many people have lost their loved ones. Many souls have been departed. The regulatory authorities put restrictions nationwide. The markets were observed with tremendous downfall. And finally, We are now into depression phase. Everyone is waiting for these restrictions to be lifted up because its summer time and it would not need any attention that how much summers are being missed for the whole year.

  1. As long as people keep co operating with the governments and regulatory bodies by following the covid protocols, It can be assumed that soon such restrictions would be lighten up.

It has been observed in many places that people are avoiding face masks and maybe the other protective protocols too. Why is that so? or Why isn’t it should be like that? The answers could be both. Initially, People did follow the safety measures took by the health bodies but this is a normal human behaviour or in other words we can say a human psychology that we get frustrated with things easily and soon. So, The problem arised is that we need to live against our behaviour and/or mindset and follow the safety protocols as long as this whole scenario gets ended.

2. None of us knows when would this whole situation reaches to an end.

Many countries including some parts of united states, europe, scandanavia and even Asia, after the series of restrictions, finally have loosen their policies regarding corona virus due to some other factors that must be focused upon and need attention. One of those factors includes Economy. Many think tankers suggested that putting the state curfews is not the solution for this outbreak. Though decisions were made to restrict sociel meetups but soon the authorities realized that these decisions would either sooner or later affect the economy. Therefore, It has now been eased upto some limits but still preventive measures need to be taken up.

3. Is the vaccine under production?

Multiple pharmaceutical industries went into research in order to prepare the vaccine specifically for the covid-19. Some months ago, It was being heard that some combinationa therapies have been found quite effective against covid-19. The famous is of azithromycin with chloroquine. And now a days, Dexamethasone is getting fame for its anti inflammatory action in patients with severe conditions.

When will the vaccines hit the markets? The answer for this question is still pending. Presently, No one can provide a specific date for the availability of vaccines for covid-19 in markets but we must endorse and appreciate that the scientists are doing their best to bring their knowledge into practice. Some scientists also conducted successful trials of vaccines ( prepared specifically for other infections previously) that were injected into covid-19 patients and got positive results.


It can be assumed by the flow of trials that vaccines may soon hit the markets but till then, We shall keep distancing and follow the necessary protocols.



In Today’s blog, we will be discussing about the term ” Biotechnology ”. The first and important thing we should know is that ” What is Biotechnology? ” How would anyone define Biotechnology? What does Biotechnology mean? So, Lets have a look at its origin.

The term ” Biotechnology ” is the combination of two words. ”Bio” and ” Technology”. Bio is a Greek word which means ” life ” and technology upholds a broad meaning that includes ” the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes ”. So, Together biotechnology involves the technology that is used upon the living beings in a scientific manner in order to obtain useful products for the betterment of mankind. It is to be mentioned that products obtained through biotechnological processes could be helpful for human beings either directly or indirectly.


Biotechnology, Based upon its application is divided mainly into four categories or groups which are;

  1. Healthcare Biotechnology
  2. Agricultural Biotechnology
  3. Industrial Biotechnology
  4. Environmental Biotechnology


Over centuries, A practice of using plants ( herbs etc ) and animals was common among the human beings for their own benefits. Numerous components used to be extracted from plants for their medicinal values and other cosmetic effects. Similar is the case with animals for being as important as plants such as ” Musk Deer ” whose meat is considered a local delicacy, and musk is still used in various medicines in order to cardiac, circulatory and respiratory disorders. The sun bear is a specie that is killed for its gallbladder, which is used for treating everything from burns to asthma to cancer.

With the discovery of microscope, A new era of science and scientific research hit the world. Many discoveries were made by the scientists, Many micro organisms were discovered. Their living patterns, mechanisms and behaviours were studied and published. A new field of biology came into being which till today known as ” Micro Biology ”. Scientists came to know that these micro organisms secrete many various types of chemicals that could be used in many medicinal products and even some of them could be used as drugs for many diseases. There are number of examples available, among which are the Penicillins originally derived from fungus. There is a normal flora of our body that help us in metabolism.

Scientists proposed that such activities by micro organisms could be used positively for human’s ease and benefits by involving technology. So, The technology was incorporated and micro organisms were used as the starter or primer in many various processes among which the very famous one is ” Fermentation ”. Other examples may include Antivenoms, Vaccines, Antiallergic drugs are being prepared via biotechnology and many more.


A vast number of products are available in markets that are being prepared and/or manufactured with the help of biotechnological processes. Biotechnology is a very brighter and broad side of natural sciences which could be made even more broader by bringing more brains and ideas into this field. It could not be thought that how many scientists worldwide would be discussing this term with different approaches and angles but the simpler thought is that there is still much more to dig in. It’s a vision for many new ideas and discoveries. It’s a deep well of knowledge that could lead us to the path of new formations and new class of lifestyle.

The Battle of Unseen

More than 6000 positive cases of covid19 were reported in california in a single day as per the reports.

Though many preventive measures have been taken up by the state authorities since the outbreak of virus but it is hard to tell who and who may not the vector of the contagious virus. It has been few days since some states reopened their economies and just in a matter of time, huge numbers are being reported each single day.

A person could be looking very normal even if he/she has this virus. This is because the symptoms may take time. This could be upto several days when the symptoms start showing up and in that meantime, that person would have meet up so many people, including family, friends, colleagues and many more. So the spread of this virus is fast and exponential.

The numbers that are being reported worldwide everyday are from the people that have been screened and tested. If the testing capacity is increased, it is quite expected that the figures may show up in a horrible range.

Besides precautions and safety protocols, Governments are also suggesting their public to avoid panic situations. It is a psychological factor that when someone look at the figures reported, it brings fear inside the head and this fear synergistically affect the overall condition.

It was being heard previously that almost a big percentage of the world’s population would be affected by this virus. Those who get affected should stay home and get themselves quarantined. Let them stay isolated for sometime and when they become negative for virus, they shall live normally.

Figures may keep rising for an indefinite period of time. It is hard to tell when would this pandemic gets to an end. World is demanding the vaccine. Scientists are struggling at their best. Even, many doctors are requesting the people who have got well from the infection to donate their blood for the plasma. This plasma is helpful in keeping the patients to go into severe conditions.


Is Sore Throat a Covid-19 Symptom? Or Having a Fever makes you a Covid-19 vector?

The world was busy in its affairs steadily. People were planning for the upcoming summers somewhere in the middle of winters. No one was expecting such an event that would change the trend of this world. A virus broke out and spread in no time in many countries. A fear that grabbed every single’s mind. Death toll raised to its peak levels. Health organizations worked up and published the awareness plans for the safety of the public.


It was found that the corona virus which is also known as ” Covid-19” has some of the effects simmilar to that of flu or some allergies. Among them includes fever, tiredness and dry cough. These are the most common symptoms that can be observed in individuals affected by covid-19 virus. A bit more serious or in other words can be labelled as less common symptoms may include, ” Diarrhea, sore throat, conjunctivitis, aches and pains, headache, loss of taste and smell, a rash on skin, discolouration of fingers or toes. And the serious symptoms include difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath, chest pain or pressure and loss of speech or movement.


Please do visit your concerned doctor or medical specialist immediately if you do observe some of the symptoms within yourself. Normally, Symptoms may take few days to show up after the infection of virus.


As the sore throat and fever are among the symptoms of the covid-19 but having such symptoms does not make one truely a covid-19 patient. People do have such symptoms in case of allergies, seasonal changes and even in flu. One shall not get panic for having specifically these two symptoms and it is better to stay isolated for two to three days. If the symptoms persist then he/she shall have a visit for the covid-19 test.


To avoid rush in hospitals and other health providing facilites, we need to stay isolated at homes in case of any mild symptoms. This is obvious that hospitals have limited number of rooms and/or beds available to serve patients. That is why, in order to avoid panicity, we need to be very polite and disciplined. Those with serious symptoms need first attention.


  1. Please avoid rushy places.
  2. Please keep distance.
  3. Please keep wearing protective gear ( Masks and gloves ) while visiting stores and markets.
  4. Get yourself isolated if you get any abnormal symptom.

Biotechnology, A Remarkable Component Of Pharma Globe

Historically, Plants, herbs and their extracted poultice were the matter that had been used as a treatment regimen for the illnesses. Later on, with the contributions of many renowned scientists, new ways of treatment came into being that not only includes new methods of extractions but also new vectors that hold the cure for certain diseases.With the invention of microscope, a new field of study was discovered that is the study of micro-organisms. Hundreds and thousands of micro-organisms were studied. Their behaviour shown that they have different inside mechanisms in different environmental conditions. Further studies resulted that such behaviour of these organisms could be used as a benefit for mankind.

This sense of bio i.e life and technology merged and a new chapter in the field of science was introduced as ‘Biotechnology’. Within few years, this subject has grown to the fastest of its pace. New methods were introduced, new and very interesting facts regarding micro organisms were reported. Multiple vaccines against some deadly viruses or other blacklisted bacteria have been developed by the use biotechnical methods with very efficient results.

Biotechnology not only approached micro organisms but other cells like of humans and their components as well paying successful contributions towards diagnosis and treatment of various diseases.Pharmaceutical products are now synthesized via both pharmaceutically like normal dosage forms available in pharmacies and biotechnologically such as vaccines, peptones etc.

Concluded that biotechnology has become a key subject in the field of medicines and natural sciences. There is still a lot more to dig and search over. Many diseases are still a hard target for scientists such as diabetes that has gripped a major percentage of world population. Medicines are available but those are only for some period of time and are not for hundred percent cure, only for periodic opposition.

There is alot more to figure out. We have to stay rigid, intact and faithful till the eradication of very last illness.

Health Reconciliation And Pharmaceutical Misuse

Through pharmaceutical approaches, Medical practitioners have become capable of treating the diagnosis in the most decent and specified by having wide variety of drugs available ( Though it still needs more attention and lots of research towards the persistant and offensive diseases as they are resistant to the current drugs or the drugs we are having are incapable of showing any desired activity towards them with zero to moderate shielding effect ).
Besides, pharmaceuticals have brought up psychological alteration in the minds of their users. People are getting and have become addicted towards many drugs, Especially the opioids, Sedatives and Hypnotics, Anti Allergics, Many Nsaids, Cough Syrups ( Being Alcoholic ) are holding up top places in the list of addictive drugs. Surveys have shown that the aforementioned drugs classes are among the most prescribing drugs in the world that is cautious for medical practitioners. However, innovations in research and through pharmaceutical approaches, this has been reduced to some way ( We have a second class of Anti Allergics that is less or slightly seductive ).
The way of using any pharmaceutical product is not like as it seems. It requires attention, Thinking and a reason to use it. A painkiller for a pain arose due to infection or any scenario is not a part of treatment. It is given only to relax and relief the patient from that pain. Whereas, the main focus under that treatment is towards that specific infection because the root cause of that pain and other abnormalities is that infection. So, the pain would automatically get relieved with the complete eradication of that infection.
Micro-organisms have become resistant to many antibiotics, making an alarming situation for the scientists to prepare more active Anti versions against such microbes. The reason for making antibiotics weak is, our ownselves. Improper consultancy, self selection of drugs, incomplete Antibiotic courses, Drug interactions in multiple Drug regimen, no proper follow-ups, all these are the reasons that increased the resistance capability of micro-organisms.
A Discrete panel of codes need to be setup and implemented to control the drug misuse and bring awareness in public to avoid self selection of drugs. The lesser we take, the beneficial that would be for us. The hardest part of treatment is the selection of the drug that can pursue the whole treatment. Prescribing a single drug or the least combination for multiple diseases or complications is the success of medical practitioner and is the finest and professionalist way of dealing with any complication.
Prescribing yourself a good health plan is wiser than taking any drug to improve your health
Let the immunity fight the battle for you and not a drug.